Thursday, 8 January 2009


The world organisation, the UNFPA and International professional association should take lead in mobilising the rest of the world to support efforts to repair all existing obstetric fistula, the state government should also take into cognisance the health of its citizen by providing health care delivery and also promote women’s reproductive health in respect of vesico vagina fistula and also educate the citizens on the need to take polio vaccine to eradicate the disease.

Wall LL.Obstetric fistulas in Africa and the developing world, new efforts to solve an age-old problem, women’s health issues 1996,6(4):229-234
The Encyclopedia of Public Relation Robert L.Heath 2005, retrieved August 2008.
Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) in Nigeria-Final Report of a National survey,
Federal Ministry of Health-National expert committee on NCD 1997.

Wednesday, 7 January 2009


The PR department deals with the management of both internal and external commutations they responsible for promotions of the health organisations and implementations of the hospital’s marketing programmes that are related to Overall Mission and vision of the hospital, also manage and improve the flow of information within the hospital and between the hospital and the community it serve.
Public relations professionals have a role to play in helping management to keep in touch with their various public because the role of PR within an organisation has become that of a spokesperson to the management, they actively solicit both employee and consumer opinion and make management aware of the effects various decisions will have on consumers employees. This is similar to the Two-way symmetric PR Model (by Grung and Hunt) which includes equality of communication using extensive dialogue and exchanges of views to change attitudes in order to reach the need of the other. The PR department should also serve as liaisons to the community and work closely with other health partners in the locality in preventive health.

The responsibilities of PR specialist in such filed includes
Writing and distributing news release, feature articles to the press, compiling press list, witting of newsletters, handing and maintain a media information service, arranging press, radio and television interviews for management, preparing marketing plans for various programmes and strategies promotional and marketing effort. Public relation department is responsible for community relations, hospital publications, media relations special events and support for fundraising.

Additional skills for hospital PR
Hospital PR practitioner in the area of heath care required special skill in order to work effectively in the field
. Understanding the patient confidentiality and privacy act
. Ability to communicate thoughts and ideas effectively an accurately
. Knowledge of in community and health care administration i.e. patient consent forms an their use
. Analytical and problem-solving ability
. Knowledge of profit hospital operate and how non-profit one are one are funded
. Knowing the hospital structure, department and support group
Familiar with the community where the hospital is located
. Writing skill and ability to handle different type of media

Tuesday, 6 January 2009


Despite the severe nature of the problem in contributing to the poor state of women’s reproductive health and rights in Kano State., It is surprising that very little is currently being done at the national level and state level to address the problem. The huge international outcry that initially heralded the problem has now abated and there is evidence that there is now waning of enthusiasm to address the problem in a realistic and sustainable manner. To date three approaches for addressing the problem of obstruct fistulas have been advocated through the efforts of public relation in creating much awareness to the general public. The approaches includes the advocacy for the postponement of marriage and sexual relations among very young girls: (2) Increasing women’s access to adequate medical care during labour and delivery, and (3) tertiary prevention through the repair of existing fistulas, it is believes that primary prevention includes promoting women’s education and economic empowerment eliminating cultural and traditional norms that encourage early marriage, promoting best birth practices and encouraging broader aspects of community development.

The repair of existing obstetric fistulae due to lack of the facilities and human resources pose a big constraint despite the advocacy of public. There is also the non accessibility of information and useful skills for the women suffering from the disease. Even in the whole of African only few health institutions have the capacity to undertake repair of fistulae. The repair of obstetric fistualae is the responsibility of obstetricians and Gynaecologists who often undertake the repair through the vaginal route and urologists who undertake the more difficult repairs through the vagin or abdominal route. Apart from the shortage of obstetricians and gynaecologists, only few existing specialists have the experience in undertaking fistula repairs.

Thus as part of efforts to address this problem, fistula repair hospitals, with subsidized services have been established in Nigeria but these have failed to address the problem as these hospitals have the capacity to undertake only a few repairs compared to the large number of existing case loads of obstetric fistulae. Furthermore, these specialised hospitals have mainly been set up by expropriates working to alleviate the problem with little efforts made by the Local Health Community to integrate the repairs and rehabilitation of persons affected by obstetric fistulae in their existing health promotion plans.

Polio disease is associated with swollen of both legs or at times the other areas of the body polio have been common disease in Kano State for a very long period of time.
There is a strong belief by the people in Kano State that administering of polio vaccine on them is aimed at reducing their population through birth control. About three years ago the government of Kano State vehemently opposed the administering of the vaccine on the children. It took the intervention of public relation managers to address the issue by organising a public enlightens through radio advertisement and television.
Also, various meetings was organised between the stakeholders such as the ministry of health, government representations, council of ulamas, the traditional institutions e.g. village heads and district head.
Again, house to house campaign was being embarked upon to educate people on the need to take the polio vaccines.
In spite of the role being played by public relation in respect of the disease there are still recorded cases of polio in the state mostly in many local government of the state and villages surrounding the area.

Monday, 5 January 2009


According to Edward Louis Bernays who was is consider the founder father of public relation along with Ivy Lee in 1900’s PR is analyses and defined as a management function which tabulate public attitudes, defines the policies, procedure and interests of an organisations followed by executing a programme of action to earn public understanding and acceptance.
public relations is still not properly considered or neither well examine in the area of health sector in Nigeria, especially in the northern part of Nigeria kano state due to their cultural background, religion, norms and believes.
This study determined the role of PR at the Aminu Kano teaching hospital (AKTH) in fostering the visibility of its programs and service, and internal management.
From the above explanations and analysis, one can explain the role of public relation in respect of vesico vagina fistula (vvf) in Aminu kano teaching hospital.

Existing data indicate that a substantial proportion of the nearly 500.00 women who die globally during childbirth occur sub-Saharan African. For each of maternal death, nearly ten thousand suffer sever morbidity associated with damage to the reproductive tracts of women and long term suffering. The most dramatic of these is obstetric fistula also called vesico-vagina fistula(VVF) characterised by the prolong and continuous leakage of urine through the vagina.
let is estimated that 800.000 cases of obstetric fistula currently, exist in Nigeria along principally in the Northern part of country and that department of obstetrics and gynaecology in Aminu kano teaching hospital has recorded many of such cases.
According to the PR department of the hospital, much awareness is not known on the effect of the vvf especially significant to escalating the problems. As mention earlier, both traditional and religion belief plays a major role in these recorded cases, most especially where a girl who is barely twelve years is given out in marriage. It is belief religiously in kano and other Northern states that a girl should experience her first menstrual period in her husband hose. The early marriage syndrome is mostly among the low level in come earner and illiterates both in kano city and villages
According to the information available to me, atypical village girl is given out in marriage at the age of ten to eleven years to a male child who is around fourteen to fifteen of age. These practices is along standing one in the part of kano state

1. Public targeting
a fundamental technique used in public is to identify the target audience and to tailor every message to appeal to that audience, it can be general, nationwide or world wide, but it is more often a segment of a population like in the cases of Kano state where people that are affected with the cases of vvf are young girl in the urban centre and villages. In addition to audiences, there are usually stakeholders, literally, people who have a “stake” in a given issue. For example, a charity commission or PR agency or department to create advertising campaign to raise money to find cure for disease.

This can be established to influence the policy of government or the opinion of the public on the disease.

The cases of vesico- vagina fistula occur as it was obtained in the department of obstetrics and Gynaecology in Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital is due to bad obstetric practices and the adverse socio-economic and cultural context under which women become pregnant and give birth. Significant of women may labour for days without the help of skilled birth attendant especially those women who are resident in the villages where there is lack of good health facilities
The resultant pressure of the fatal head compressing the bladder and the vagina behind the pelvic bone courses prolonged loss of blood supply, tissue death sloughing and the formation of pertinent passage between the bladder and the vagina. In some cases, a passage may also be created between the rectum and vagina resulting in recto-vagina –fistula and the permanent passage of faces through the vagina.

Friday, 2 January 2009

Public relations defined and distinguished

Definitions of public relations

Public relations concern any organisation, commercial or non-commercially exist whether we like it or not, one cannot decide to have or not have public relations. PR consists of all communications with all the people with whom an organisation has contact, an individual also experiences public relations, unless he or she is utterly isolated and beyond human contact
So misunderstood is public relations that the last place to look for satisfactory definition is in a dictionary. But let examine one or two internationally respected definitions which are good or rather familiar to PR professionals.

Definitions of the (British) institute of public relations (lPR)
Public relations practice is the planned and sustained effort to establish and maintain goodwill and mutual understanding between an organisation and its publics (As revised November 1987.)
Grunig and Hunt –defined public relations as the management of communication between an organisation and its public and emphasised that this definition equate public relations and communications management.

.lt is the planned and sustained effort--meaning that PR activity is organised as a campaign or programme and is a continuous activity. It’s not haphazard.
.its purpose is ‘to establish and maintain mutual understanding---that is, to ensure that the organisation is understood by others.

Historical background of Kano

The city of Kano, Nigeria is the major trade and shipping centre for an agricultural produce including cotton, cattle and peanut from the northern part of Nigeria and it is also a major industrial centre with factories producing peanut flour and oil, cotton textile, steel and furniture, processed meat concrete blocks, shoes and house hold goods. Traditionally the city has been known for its leather work. Its tanned goatskins were exported (from about the 15Th century) to the other parts of Africa and Europe where they were known as Moroccan leather. Historically Kano was Original seven Hausa city-state that flourished in northern Nigeria in the 16Th to 19Th century and its written history dates back to 999 AD, by which time the city was already seven hundred years old. In the early 16Th century, Islam arrived in Kano and it was widely adopted by the population. The city-state of Kano reached the height of its power in the 17Th and 18Th century. In 1809 the city-state was conquered by the Fulani and became part of Sultanate established by Uthman Dan Fodio in northern Nigeria. The present day of city of Kano includes both the ancient city and bustling metropolis that has grown around it. It is the capital of Kano state, one of the 36 states that make up modern Nigeria.

Background information on (AKTH)

Aminu kano Teaching Hospital was established in August1988. prior to its movement to the permanent site along Zaria Road in 1996, the hospital was temporally housed at the mustala muhammed specialist hospital, kano.
Amiun kano Teaching Hospital was designed as a 500 bed tertiary Hospital. currently, the hospital has 8 Departments:Medine,surgery,psychiatry,obstetrics and Gynaecology, Dental and Maxillofacial surgery, Ophthalmology, Anaesthesiology/ICU and paediatrics.